Fundamentals of Electronic
This book covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles.
1 Introduction Electronic systems design is the subject within electrical engineering that deals with the multidisciplinary design issues of complex electronic devices, such as cell phones and computers. Chapter 1 introduces and motivates the various chapters of this book.
2 Design Process and Its Fundamentals This chapter describes the basics of the development process for electronic systems. We present how service-proven standards and norms along with standard drawings and computer technology can be used to break down the design process into separate activities, which are then more easily performed. We describe these design activities in detail and outline the requisite technical documentation (technical drawings, circuit diagrams, CAD models) that are required to produce successful electronic products.
2.1 Life Cycle of Electronic Products
2.2 Design and Development Process
2.3 Guidance for Product Planning, Design and Development
2.4 Technical Drawings
2.5 Circuit Diagrams
2.6 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
3 System Architecture and Protection Requirements This chapter introduces system-level functions and structures (Sect. 3.1), design variants (Sect. 3.2), and various technological implementations (i.e., electronic system levels) for a design solution (Sect. 3.3). These implementation options allow a development engineer to identify opportunities for modularization early in the design process to reduce costs and shorten the development timeline. System protection issues should also be considered during development. Each module and the electronic system should be designed so that it does not pose a risk to humans or to the environment (Sect. 3.4.1). In addition, compliance with statutory requirements, such as, protection against electric shock (protection classes, Sect. 3.4.2), protection against accidental contact, and protection against ingress of foreign objects or water (IP codes, Sect. 3.4.3), is mandatory.
3.1 Introduction - Terminology, Functions and Structures
3.2 Systems Design Architecture
3.3 Electronic System Levels
3.4 System Protection
4 Reliability Analysis This chapter explains the mathematics needed to perform reliability analysis and introduces the primary reliability parameters, which a development engineer must be familiar with today (Sects. 4.1 and 4.2). The so-called bathtub curve of failure rates is applied for the reliability of electronic systems; understanding the middle of this curve, which represents a constant failure rate, is critical in practice. The reliability parameters for electronic systems are easily calculated by applying this constant failure rate (Sect. 4.3). The failure modes of electronic components are described in Sect. 4.4. We show how the required reliability parameters for individual components and modules can be determined by applying the mode of constant failure rate (Sects. 4.5 and 4.6). In addition, we present how the system reliability can be calculated from the reliability of individual components. Finally, Sect. 4.7 contains recommendations for upgrading the reliability of electronic systems.
4.2 Calculation Principles
4.3 Exponential Distribution
4.4 Failure of Electronic Components
4.5 Failure of Electronic Systems
4.6 Reliability Analysis of Electronic Systems
4.7 Recommendations for Improving Reliability of Electronic Systems
5 Thermal Management and Cooling Thermal management must ensure that temperatures within the electronic product always remain within the specified limits. This chapter introduces and elaborates on determining the heat energy produced by a system (Sect. 5.1) and on calculating the heat paths with thermal networks (Sect. 5.2). The heat transfer principles described in Sect. 5.3 will help the reader select and design suitable elements for heat dissipation (Sect. 5.4). They assure compliance with the thermal requirements for various electronic system configurations that are presented in a step-by-step approach in Sect. 5.5. Finally, recommendations for thermally-correct systems design will be given in Sect. 5.6.
5.1 Introduction - Terminology, Temperatures and Power Dissipation
5.2 Calculation Principles
5.3 Heat Transfer
5.4 Methods to Increase Heat Transfer
5.5 Application Examples in Electronic Systems
6 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) An important topic in electronic systems design is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), which concerns the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy. Every electronic system must meet mandatory EMC standards. Basic knowledge of EMC-related issues is introduced in Sect. 6.1. Unintentional coupling of circuits are dealt with in Sect. 6.2, and design options for their prevention, for example, by selecting appropriate reference grounds, are covered in Sect. 6.3. An important measure for assuring the EMC of systems is shielding. Section 6.4 introduces the principle of shielding, and discusses shielding against different types of fields. A related discipline to EMC, electrostatic discharge (ESD), is covered in Sect. 6.5. Finally, we provide recommendations for good EMC practice in electronic systems design in Sect. 6.6.
6.2 Coupling Between System Components
6.3 Grounding Electronic Systems
6.4 Shielding from Fields
6.5 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
6.6 Recommendations for EMC-compliant Systems Design
7 Recycling Requirements and Design for Environmental Compliance The challenge for designers in today’s waste-disposal-aware society is to produce environmentally compliant systems. This chapter describes critical environmental considerations during the design and development stages that have tremendous impact during product disposal and recycling. We begin with a discussion of the importance of a circular economy, in which products are designed to circulate in the production system without entering the environment (Sect. 7.1). Section 7.2 describes the circular economy’s effect on the manufacture, usage, and disposal of electronic systems. Section 7.3 explores the concept of product recycling. The materials in every electronic system must be disposed of at the end of their useful life. The commercial and ecological aspects of the necessary material recycling (Sect. 7.4) are determined by how well the system has been designed for disassembly (Sect. 7.5) and by the suitability of its constituent materials for recycling (Sect. 7.6). Section 7.7 concludes with a review of recommendations for design for environmental compliance.
7.3 Product Recycling in the Disposal Process
7.4 Material Recycling in the Disposal Process
7.5 Design and Development for Disassembly
7.6 Material Suitability in Design and Development
7.7 Recommendations for Environmentally Compliant Systems
8 Appendix This appendix is intended to introduce and summarize the types and formats of technical documentation that are typically encountered in electronic system designs. This encompasses rules, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing in technical drawings (Sects. 8.1., 8.2) and preferred numbers (Renard and E-Series, Sect. 8.3). We also outline schematic symbols for electronic components (Sect. 8.4) and describe their labeling with colors and characters (Sect. 8.5).
8.1 Notes and Rules on Technical Drawings
8.2 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
8.3 Preferred Numbers - Renard and E-Series
8.4 Schematic Symbols of Electronic Components
8.5 Labeling of Electronic Components
|Last update: 13.01.2020|